During the searches, it was determined that the shelf life of the salt pressed meat was longer. It has been discovered that salt can benefit from spices after it has been found to extend the shelf life of meat. With this discovery, consumption of delicatessen products such as sausage and pastrami started. One of the imperatives of the nomadic lifestyle may have been the consumption of sausage for the Turks.
Meat and meat products have an important place in human nutrition. Fermented meat products are durable products with a long shelf life with low pH and low water activity, high salt concentration and low moisture content. Fermented meat products generally consist of emulsion of meat and fat particles in a certain amount, fermentation and drying of salt, curing agents, spices etc. in a certain cover.
Turkish sausage is a granulated and dried fermented meat product. Such products are subjected to fermentation after curing. Production is completed with the following drying process. Such products are prepared as dry, fully dry, semi-dry, slightly dry. Traditional Turkish sausage is included in the completely dry group. It contains 30% -35% full dry, 40-50% semi-dry, less than 50% dry water.
Flow Chart of Sausage Production
Holding (0-4 oC 8-12 hours)
During the dough making, cold meats and fats are between 1.3-2.5 cm. It is cut into cubes by passing through perforated mirrors. Curing salts and spices are added on it. It is mixed and re-passed through a fine mirror and mixed for a homogeneous mixture.
During the filling, the mixture is put into fillers consisting of natural and artificial sheaths. The bovine small intestine is a natural sheath. Filling must be done with pressure.
Temperature Control Points in Sausage Production
In sausage production, some defects occur as a result of negligence and defects in raw material, processing and preservation techniques. These errors manifest themselves in appearance, taste, odor, physical structure and chemical properties.
The controlled temperatures in sausage production are:
Temperature control during holding dough
Temperature control during fermentation (maturation) and drying
Temperature control during storage
Temperature Control While Keeping Sausage Dough in Cold Condition
Sausage dough is kept at 0-4 o C for 8-12 hours. Meanwhile, the sausage is cooled and the flavor is formed. The temperature control here is not very precise.
Temperature Control During Fermentation (Maturation) and Drying
Maturation is provided in air conditioning rooms where temperature, relative humidity and air draft are controlled. It is mostly done during drying and maturation. A unique flavor and durability are provided to the product at this stage. Starter culture is used for a controlled fermentation. Starter cultures used are lactic acid bacteria. The most important of these are Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, L. fermented. Microoccus aurantiacus is used as a starter culture. Combination of Lactobacillus and Microoccus starter cultures gives the best results. Among these, the temperatures at which L. plantarum fermentation is best is between 25-30 o C and fermentation is mostly done at these temperatures. during rapid fermentation (mostly in Turkey) on the first day temperature 26-27 ° C is adjusted to a temperature of 1 ° C every day and is provided under reduced maturation 6-7 days. Meanwhile, the humidity is periodically reduced and drying is provided.
Small temperature changes that may occur during ripening cause defects and loss of quality in the product. For this, the control must be precise.
Temperature Control During Storage
Storage is done at 10-12 o C in traditional sausage and at 2-4 o C in vacuumed sausage. The measurement may not be sensetive.
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